This objective has been successful pursued in the networking activities of Workgroup 3. The conversion of Smart energy carriers (SECs) show diverging combustion characteristics e.g. flame structure, laminar burning velocity, ignition delay time or emissions (NOx, CO, UHCs, soot) and hence, innovative diagnostic tools had to be optimized or even developed for proper application in SEC environments. Subsequently, the core aim of WG3 was the design of advanced diagnostic tools. The diagnostic tools have been tested in fundamental experiments with well-defined boundary conditions (so-called model flames). These experiments were used to acquire fundamental data that helped to increase the overall level of understanding regarding the conversion of specific SECs or e.g. the development of new kinetic schemes (connection to WG1 and WG4).
An additionally target of WG3 was the transfer of the advanced diagnostic tools from laboratory scale to more complex (industrial) systems for characterising or process controlling (connection to WG5).
Within the WG3, various modern measurement techniques were verified, optimized and applied for different SECs, mostly with either focus on the diagnostic aspect or either with the aim to collect (fundamental) data about SEC combustion. In focus of many participating research groups have been promising fuels like e.g. synthesis gases combustion/production, alcohols (ethanol, butanol), ammonia or sulphur as SECs. Additionally, the research of solid fuels (e.g. combustion and pyrolysis of bio mass or waste) were investigated by several research groups involved in WG3.
Different diagnostic tools on measurements of direct and indirect parameters have been obtained which strongly contributed to build the background and tools for SECs deployment.